Layers of Heaven

“What is it about punk?

“Back in the ‘60s—now safe and cozy under a twenty-year blanket of consensus history—the basic social division was straight vs. hip, right vs. left, pigs ‘n’ freaks, feds ‘n’ heads. Spiro Agnew vs. Timothy Leary. It was a clear, simple gap that sparked and sputtered like a high-voltage carbon arc. The country was as close to civil war as it’s been in modern times. News commentators sometimes speak of this as a negative thing—burning cities, correct revolutionary actions, police riots—but there was a lot of energy there. ‘60s people think of the old tension as “good” in somewhat the same way that ‘40s people look back on the energy of WWII as “good.”

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“A simple dichotomy. But during the ‘70s times got tough, and all the ‘60s people got older. Madison Avenue turned hip into product. Businessmen got hot-tubs; and they weren’t necessarily faking—I know a number of present-day businessmen who are regular old-time acidheads, but…you’ve got to get the bread to send your kids to college, right? The gap between hip and straight is still there, but it’s faded, the jags have rubbed off.

“If you’re young, you want to come up with something new—that’s how the race grows. Some ‘80s youngsters may want to be straights—our country will always need sports fans and prison guards—but the smart ones, the ones who ask hard questions, the same kids who would have been hippies in the ‘60s—these people needed some kind of stance that would bug all old people. Thus punk.

“I used to live in the boonies, and LP records were my contact to what was happening. The only good music in the ‘70s was Zappa, and even he was getting old. I’ll never forget the excitement of the first punk records—the New York Dolls, Lou Reed, Patti Smith, Elvis Costello, and then…the Clash. Of course that was all eight years ago (which, these exponential days, is a long time). It keeps mutating. Now I listen to the Ramones, Detox, and the Butthole Surfers. “Yes, the Butthole Surfers.” Doesn’t that tell you more than, “Yes, the New Yorker?”

“The real charm of punk is that stupid hippies dislike it as much as do stupid rednecks. “What’s the matter with them? What do they want?” Anyone who was ever a hippie for the right reasons—a hatred of conformity and a desire to break through to higher realities—is likely to appreciate and enjoy the punks. But a lot of basically conventional people slid through the ‘70s thinking of themselves as avant-garde, when in fact they were brain-dead. What’s good about punk is that it makes all of us question our comfortable assumptions and attitudes. Wait…look at that last sentence, and you can see I’m forty. How complacently I slip the “us” in there—trying to co-opt the revolution. How Life magazine of me, how plastic, how bullshit. What’s good about punk is that it’s fast and dense. It has a lot of information. Which brings us to “cyber.”

What is Cybernetics?

“It’s the title of an incomprehensible book by Norbert Weiner, mainly. Claude Shannon, the Bell Labs inventor of information theory, encouraged Weiner to use the word “cybernetics” because “No one knows what it means, Norbert, which will always put you at an advantage in an argument.” More seriously, if I talk about “cyber,” I really want to talk about the modern concept of information.

“Mathematics can be thought of as based on five concepts: Number, Space, Logic, Infinity, and Information. The age of Number was the Middle Ages, with their nitpicking lists of sins and layers of heaven. Space was the Renaissance, with perspective and the printing press spreading copies out. Logic was the Industrial Revolution, with great steam engines chugging away like syllogistic inferences. Infinity was Modern Times, with quantum mechanics and LSD. Now we’re starting on Information. The computers are here, the cybernetic revolution is over.

Text: Rudy Rucker, from What Is Cyberpunk?

Image: Peter Daverington, The New Colony-From Bierstadt to Neuromancer, 2008-2009

Reading or Riding a Bicycle

“Like a brain, an ant colony operates without central control. Each is a set of interacting individuals, either neurons or ants, using simple chemical interactions that in the aggregate generate their behavior. People use their brains to remember. Can ant colonies do that? This question leads to another question: what is memory? For people, memory is the capacity to recall something that happened in the past. We also ask computers to reproduce past actions – the blending of the idea of the computer as brain and brain as computer has led us to take ‘memory’ to mean something like the information stored on a hard drive. We know that our memory relies on changes in how much a set of linked neurons stimulate each other; that it is reinforced somehow during sleep; and that recent and long-term memory involve different circuits of connected neurons. But there is much we still don’t know about how those neural events come together, whether there are stored representations that we use to talk about something that happened in the past, or how we can keep performing a previously learned task such as reading or riding a bicycle.

Spellbound

“Any living being can exhibit the simplest form of memory, a change due to past events. Look at a tree that has lost a branch. It remembers by how it grows around the wound, leaving traces in the pattern of the bark and the shape of the tree. You might be able to describe the last time you had the flu, or you might not. Either way, in some sense your body ‘remembers,’ because some of your cells now have different antibodies, molecular receptors, which fit that particular virus.

“Past events can alter the behavior of both individual ants and ant colonies. Individual carpenter ants offered a sugar treat remembered its location for a few minutes; they were likely to return to where the food had been. Another species, the Sahara Desert ant, meanders around the barren desert, searching for food. It appears that an ant of this species can remember how far it walked, or how many steps it took, since the last time it was at the nest.”

Text: Deborah M. Gordon,Ant Colonies Retain Memories That Outlast the Lifespans of Individuals”, Smithsonian Magazine

Pic: Spellbound, Dir. Alfred Hitchcock, 1945

An Instrument of God

“The belief that Trump’s election was God’s divine will is shared by others. Franklin Graham, the prominent conservative evangelical, said last year that Trump’s victory was the result of divine intervention. “I could sense going across the country that God was going to do something this year. And I believe that at this election, God showed up,” he told the Washington Post.

Radio Free Albemuth - Sanrio 1987-8

“Taylor has made other claims, which he calls “prophetic words”, including that Trump will serve two terms, the landmark supreme court ruling on abortion in the Roe v Wade case will be overturned, and that next month’s midterm elections will result in a “red tsunami”, strengthening Republican control of both houses of Congress.

“Barack Obama will be charged with treason and Trump will authorise the arrest of “thousands of corrupt officials, many of whom are part of a massive satanic paedophile ring”. Trump will also force the release of cures for cancer and Alzheimer’s that are currently being withheld by the pharmaceutical industry.

“About 1,200 cinemas across the US were screening The Trump Prophecy on Tuesday and Thursday this week. There may be repeat showings if there is demand. Given several rows of empty seats in the Regal River Ridge Stadium in Lynchburg, Virginia – a conservative evangelical heartland – that may prove unnecessary.

“But there were plenty in the audience that heaped praise on the movie and its lengthy coda of talking heads hailing America’s leadership in the world, strong economy, military prowess, defence of Israel and general godliness.

“God is definitely using Trump to restore America and bring revival to our land,” said cinemagoer Kathy Robinson. “He stands for the common man and protects our freedoms. And he’s a good man himself – not perfect, but none Hof us are.”

“Doug Barringer was impressed with the movie. He was sceptical of Trump “right up until election night. But what I’ve seen him doing since has led me to believe that maybe he is an instrument of God.”

Text: The chosen one? The new film that claims Trump’s election was an act of God, The Guardian.

Pic: Philip K. Dick, Radio Free Albemuth, Japanese edition.  Wikipedia:  “In this alternate history, the corrupt United States president Ferris F. Fremont (FFF for 666, ‘F’ being the 6th letter in the alphabet) becomes Chief Executive in the late 1960s following Lyndon Johnson’s administration. The character is best described as an amalgam of Joseph McCarthy and Richard Nixon, who abrogates civil liberties and human rights through positing a conspiracy theory centered on a (presumably) fictitious subversive organization known as “Aramchek”. In addition to this, he is associated with a right-wing populist movement called “Friends of the American People” (FAPers). The President’s paranoia and opportunism lead to the establishment of a real resistance movement that is organized through narrow-beam radio transmissions from a mysterious alien near-Earth satellite by a superintelligent, extraterrestrial, but less than omnipotent being (or network) named VALIS.”

Simon Sellars’ Applied Ballardianism: “When you have to shoot, shoot. Don’t talk.”

Simon Sellars‘ Applied Ballardianism is part cultural theory, part fictional memoir, its narrator “fleeing the excesses of ’90s cyberculture” a young researcher setting out to “…systematically analyse the obsessively reiterated themes of a writer who prophesied the disorienting future we now inhabit.” Andrew Frost interviews Sellars on the emergence of a brand new genre, the writing of the book, and the possibility of escape…

Photo: Simon Sellars, on Instagram

Andrew Frost: I saw a tweet recently that posted a four-page reading list of ‘theory fiction’. The list starts with Lucretius’s On the Nature of the Universe (52 BC) and then includes in publication order authors such as Blake, Bataille, Kafka, Adorno, Beckett – and Ballard’s Atrocity Exhibition – then Virilio, Dick and Haraway, eventually ending with Simon Sellars’ Applied Ballardianism. This was only the second time I’d heard of this genre, the first being when you mentioned it on Facebook. What do you make of this notion of your book belonging to what might be a brand-new genre, albeit one with deep roots?

Simon Sellars: That list is an interesting exercise, but I don’t feel a part of any genre. Most people see Applied Ballardianism as a hybrid work in that it combines theoretical elements with a fictional format, but even that’s not quite accurate. The subtitle is ‘Memoir from a Parallel Universe’ and I do see it as the story of my life at a certain moment in time, when I’d returned to my PhD on Ballard after a ten-year absence and was struggling to complete it. The apocalyptic and science fictional elements have a basis in reality – they’re psychologically true to my imagination and the way I viewed the world during that time. And the theoretical elements bubble to the surface, no matter how nonsensical, as the protagonist, my alter ego, tries to make sense of his life as a failed academic and stalker of the object of his desire: J.G. Ballard.

If people claim theory-fiction as a genre of the moment, then perhaps that’s because everyone is so bored with critical theory now. Theory has failed to make sense of a world that has become so extreme and chaotic at every turn. But we retain the primal urge to make order from chaos, to root seismic cultural changes in a comforting theoretical framework. Maybe that’s why theory has become unstable, frayed at the edges, spliced with other forms.

AF: Yeah, a kind of theory-fiction has been emergent since at least the 1990s, and the ‘science fiction of theory’ posited by some writers and academics, predominantly in the UK had some traction. It seems that at some level you’re engaging with the possibility of what that can do in terms of a kind of ficto-criticism. How do you feel being in this august company? Do you feel an affinity or connection with those writers beyond Ballard?

SS: The connections I feel are with French theorists such as Baudrillard and Virilio, who consistently wrote beautifully calibrated theory that blurred around the edges into something approaching science fiction, but to say I feel ‘connected’ to them seems arrogant. Virilio, the true Prophet of the Techno-Apocalypse, is a towering presence for me, and I think that with his death and a revisiting of his work, it’s becoming apparent how much he predicted the volatile nature of 21st-century life. Actually, Baudrillard and Virilio are the presiding deities of my book, aside from Ballard of course. I cite them extensively in Applied Ballardianism and I also have my protagonist try to emulate their style, although he speaks for me when he says: ‘I thought I’d be able to effortlessly produce a startling hybrid of theory-fiction, like Baudrillard and Virilio, but I simply wasn’t talented enough in either theory or fiction. All that emerged was torturous, meaningless phraseology crudely shoehorned into an incoherent framework.’ I simply don’t know the worth of my book at this point, and whether it should be spoken about in that sort of company. Probably in terms of a general trend, then yes, I suppose so – I seem to have tapped into a current, a formal revolution in what we understand as ‘theory’.

AF: I was wondering if you could talk about the genesis of this novel. You’ve written a few non-fiction books and co-edited the Ballard interviews collection, Extreme Metaphors, but did this book start out as non-fiction? What was the motivation?

SS: The original motivation was to have my PhD on Ballard published. Mark Fisher asked me to adapt my thesis for Zero Books in 2009. Back then, the project was called Applied Ballardianism: The Philosophy of J.G. Ballard. It was intended to be a reasonably straight translation of the thesis into book form but written in the style of the posts I’d been doing for Ballardian.com, a more conversational, literary tone. But re-reading my thesis, I realised I’d used all the worst clichés of academic-speak, like prefacing an argument with ‘I want to argue that…’. So many academics use this ludicrous phrase, which just reeks of mealy-mouthed fence sitting.

I always think of Tuco in The Good, the Bad and the Ugly when he’s ambushed by a man who talks so much he doesn’t realise Tuco has whipped his gun out. Tuco kills him, then gives the corpse some excellent advice: ‘When you have to shoot, shoot. Don’t talk.’ Likewise, with academics: when you have to argue, argue. Don’t blather on.

So, having to re-engage with this drivel and interpret it for a new audience was doing my head in. Also, in terms of my career, I couldn’t see the point. I was working as a sessional tutor and knew I had to get my PhD published to have any chance at career progression, but it began to seem all so remote, with or without a published book. My research topic, ‘nodes of resistance’ in Ballard, was too niche, too pretentious. Because I was so enervated, it took me three years to write the first chapter and by then the Zero contract had expired.

At that point, I was still hopelessly trapped in the sweatshop hell of sessional teaching, and that’s when the book began to take on the form of an insane alternative version of myself attempting to write a thesis on Ballard. It wasn’t a conscious decision to go down that path. Even though I’d lost the contract, I was still possessed by the idea of writing this book, so I just sat down at the computer most nights and that’s how it emerged.

AF: The book is written in the first person and I assumed that most, if not all of it, was at least partly based in part on your own experiences. But as I understand it, that’s not necessarily the case. Could you talk about the process of fictionalising your ideas, or creating a narrative, around certain Ballardian themes?

SS: You asked about theory-fiction, but I see my book as more in line with auto-fiction, because I think it’s hilarious when people assume that memoirs and autobiographies are telling the unvarnished truth about a person’s life. It’s impossible. The writer’s memory will always be contaminated by conscious and subconscious bias, a key theme in my book. So, when Applied Ballardianism slips into some of the more outlandish incidents, most of the time it’s a true reflection of how I remember a key detail of my life occurring, even if the reality diverges from the memory in a minor or major way.

There are also parallels with the way Ballard fictionalised his life story in Empire of the Sun, based on his childhood in wartime Shanghai, and its sequel The Kindness of Women, drawing on his adult life in England. In my book, there is a section that explores this process. The narrator appropriates Baudrillard’s ideas about the symbolic role of the clone in technological societies, and how perfect reproductions of the self become the ideal fetish object in the society of simulation. As the narrator argues, Ballard generated many versions of himself in his fiction, many ‘clones’, all based on his life story, rendering all attempts at explaining his work pointless because there is no single source of truth.

In fact, Ballard’s fictionalised life stories have become so entrenched in the way the public sees him that when real details of his life emerge, no one pays any attention. The fiction has invaded reality, emptied it out and replaced it with a parallel universe. In Applied Ballardianism, the narrator thinks this technique prophesies social media, where retouched versions of ourselves make up our multiple online personas.

The narrator is also fixated on something Ballard once said about Crash, his most extreme and shocking work. He said that Crash was his real autobiography, not Empire, the obvious candidate, or even his official autobiography, Miracles of Life. Ballard said Crash was true to his inner life, to the psychological turmoil he was working through after his wife died unexpectedly. When my narrator grapples with this, he’s indirectly telling the reader: that’s how Applied Ballardianism functions. He’s saying that this device is a comment on the fact that there is no authentic self in the age of spontaneous self-reproduction. And he’s saying that the book is precisely what it claims to be in the subtitle: a memoir from a parallel universe, a work rooted in my imaginative inner life, including extended periods of black depression induced by academia and my fading career, which in their overwhelming realness became my only true reality in a world of fake realities.

AF: Your book has a remarkably controlled sense of what constitutes the ‘Ballardian’ text: certain words, phrases and images are reminiscent of Ballard, but without becoming what might be termed ‘Ballard fan fiction’.

SS: There’s a passage in the book where the narrator dissects the cliched imagery that many people associate with Ballard: motorway overpasses, drained swimming pools, abandoned airfields and so on. With that, I was signalling that I was fully aware of how hard it is to ape his style without degenerating into platitudes, so I wasn’t even going to try. After all, the book is not about the protagonist wanted to mimic Ballard, but about being consumed by him. There’s a difference.

In The Atrocity Exhibition, Ballard has the central character enter a landscape described exactly like Dali’s The Persistence of Memory, with its melted clocks, weird facial imagery and bleak desert environment. He does this to suggest that the character’s inner turmoil has been projected onto the landscape and that he has lost all sense of reality because he is literally living inside his head – broadly speaking, the themes of Dali’s painting. In Applied Ballardianism, I’ve done the same. I’ve made my protagonist live inside a world described like Ballard’s fiction – like the cliched public perception of it – to show that he has lost all touch with reality, and that his obsession with stalking Ballard, with stalking the meaning of Ballard’s work, have been overlaid onto the physical landscape.

 AF: What was the editing process like, either as you wrote it, or later?

SS: The editing process was intense. In between the loss of my Zero contract and Urbanomic coming to the rescue, I simply wrote and rewrote, over and over, until the blend of theory and fiction felt organic. It was incredibly hard to pull off something so technically difficult. I was repurposing phrases, sentences, sometimes whole paragraphs from the earliest drafts of my PhD, over 20 years old. I felt it was important to have the first attempts at my thesis survive as an echo in the book, given that the book originally started life as a translation of my thesis, but I found that it’s really hard to combine writing from decades ago with the way one writes now, let alone concoct a seamless blend of theory and fiction. It never felt quite right until I’d done at least ten drafts. When Robin Mackay from Urbanomic came along, that’s when the book really took off. Robin is a great editor and was alive to when I hadn’t pushed myself far enough and had become lazy or didn’t trust the audience to fill in the gaps. I enjoyed the collaborative process of working on the book with Robin, although in the end I couldn’t let it go. At the end, I’d become reduced to removing commas and then putting them back in, which I imagine drove him crazy.

I couldn’t let the book out into the world because writing it had become my identity. I first announced it on Twitter in 2009 and had loads of queries from people asking when it would be published. Every few years or so I would tweet ‘coming soon’ or ‘stay tuned for further announcements’. I think deep down I felt that if I finally published the book, which, after all, is my farewell to a life of studying Ballard, then my whole public persona, based on a certain knowledge of Ballard, would be punctured.

Now that the dust has settled, I feel liberated. With the publication of this project, I have finally completed my education at the feet of Ballard, almost twenty-five years on from when I wrote my first paper on him. The way I view the world, under his influence, has finally been solidified and I am OK with where it is has landed. It’s been a wild and crazy time living my life under the Ballardian lens, dangerous at times, as the book hints, although never less than thrilling. I owe Mr Ballard everything, but it’s time to move on.

AF: I was wondering if you could talk about the rather seemingly innocuous, if graphically bold, image on the book’s cover – it forms a crucial aspect of the narrator’s magical thinking.

SS: That image is a composite of two key paranormal moments experienced by the narrator. I don’t want to explain them here, because they’d be spoilers, but suffice to say these moments cement in his mind the idea that another type of world, a parallel reality, is bleeding through into his world. And these experiences repeat at key intervals throughout the story, sort of like breadcrumbs he must follow to find his way home, wherever that might be – or perhaps to escape this world and into another.

In fact, the image is a heavily retouched photo I took of a streetlight in the Netherlands when I was working as a travel writer over a decade ago. I remember thinking the light was so unusual, like an eye, and I was just drawn to its uncanny shape. In the book, the protagonist also becomes a travel writer but he becomes dissatisfied with it, as he did with academia, when his obsession with the occult completely controls his mind. Streetlights figure prominently in that delusion. So, the fact that a photo of mine has taken on this otherworldly sheen is perfect, really. When I took the photo, I never dreamed that twelve years into the future I’d write a fictionalised account of my life. But at some level I must have known I would, because here we are.

As Ballard warned: ‘Deep assignments run through all our lives. There are no coincidences.’

So, you see, the protagonist’s quest is ultimately futile, as is mine, because in the end it all comes back to Ballard. Always Ballard.

Who am I kidding? I can never escape.

Simon Sellar’s Applied Ballardianism from Urbanomic is available from a giant soulless multinational... 

90 Percent

“Every year, millions of tonnes of plastic debris ends up in the sea – a global environmental problem with unforeseeable ecological consequences. The path taken by plastic to reach the sea must be elucidated before it will be possible to reduce the volume of plastic input. To date, there was only little information available on this. It has now been followed up by an interdisciplinary research team who were able to show that plastic debris is primarily carried into the sea by large rivers.

Honnery-Rachel

“In the meantime, minute plastic particles can be found in the water in virtually every sea and river. This constitutes a serious and growing global environmental problem. There are enormous quantities of input each year and plastic weathers only very slowly. Marine life can be harmed by the tiny plastic particles floating in the water. One example of how this happens is when fish, seabirds or marine mammals mistake the particles for food and consume them. “It is still impossible to foresee the ecological consequences of this. One thing is certain, however: this situation cannot continue,” says Dr. Christian Schmidt, a hydrogeologist at the UFZ. “But as it is impossible to clean up the plastic debris that is already in the oceans, we must take precautions and reduce the input of plastic quickly and efficiently.”

“However, in order to take practical measures to reduce plastic input, it will be necessary to answer the initial questions: Where does all the plastic come from anyhow? And how does it get into the sea? Schmidt and his team addressed these questions in a study that recently appeared in the current issue of “Environmental Science & Technology” journal. For this purpose, the researchers analysed various scientific studies that examined the plastic load – that is the quantity of plastic carried by the water – in rivers. They converted the results of the studies into mutually comparable datasets and determined the ratio of these figures to the quantity of waste that is not disposed of properly in the respective catchment area. “We were able to demonstrate that there is a definite correlation in this respect,” says Schmidt. “The more waste there is in a catchment area that is not disposed of properly, the more plastic ultimately ends up in the river and takes this route to the sea.” In this context, large rivers obviously play a particularly large role – not only because they also carry a comparatively large volume of waste on account of their larger discharge. Schmidt says, “the concentrations of plastic, i.e. the quantity of plastic per cubic metre of water are significantly higher in large rivers than small ones. The plastic loads consequently increase at a disproportionately higher rate than the size of the river.”

“The researchers have also calculated that the ten river systems with the highest plastic loads (eight of them are in Asia and two in Africa) – areas in which hundreds of millions of people live, in some cases – are responsible for around 90 percent of the global input of plastic into the sea. “Halving the plastic input from the catchment areas of these rivers would already be a major success”, says Schmidt. “To achieve this, it will be necessary to improve the waste management and raise public awareness for the issue. We hope that our study will make a contribution to a positive development so that the plastic problem in our oceans can be curbed in the long run.”

Text: Rivers carry plastic debris into the sea

Pic: Rachel Honnery, ‘…researching marine plastics and their role as kipple’.

What the Map Doesn’t Show

“Where the City Can’t See is the first fiction film shot entirely through laser scanning technology, directed by artist Liam Young and written by author Tim Maughan. Set in the Chinese owned and controlled Detroit Economic Zone (DEZ), in a not-too-distant future where Google maps, urban management systems and CCTV surveillance are not only mapping our cities, but ruling them.

“Exploring the subcultures that could emerge from these new technologies, the film follows a collection of young factory workers across a single night, as they drift through the smart city in a driverless taxi, searching for a place they know exists, but that the map doesn’t show. They are part of an underground community that work on the production lines by day, by night adorn themselves in machine vision camouflage and the tribal masks of anti-facial recognition, enacting their escapist fantasies in the hidden spaces of the city. They hack the city and journey through a network of stealth buildings, ruinous landscapes, ghost architectures, anomalies, glitches and sprites, searching for the wilds beyond the machines…”

Text: Where The City Can’t See, andfestival
Video: WHERE THE CITY CAN’T SEE TEASER from liam young on Vimeo.

 

“In the outside world…”

“In the outside world, the problem isn’t that plants are suddenly getting more light: It’s that for years, they’ve been getting more carbon dioxide. Plants rely on both light and carbon dioxide to grow. If shining more light results in faster-growing, less nutritious algae—junk-food algae whose ratio of sugar to nutrients was out of whack—then it seemed logical to assume that ramping up carbon dioxide might do the same. And it could also be playing out in plants all over the planet. What might that mean for the plants that people eat?

06062014soylentoceanographic

“What Loladze found is that scientists simply didn’t know. It was already well documented that CO2levels were rising in the atmosphere, but he was astonished at how little research had been done on how it affected the quality of the plants we eat. For the next 17 years, as he pursued his math career, Loladze scoured the scientific literature for any studies and data he could find. The results, as he collected them, all seemed to point in the same direction: The junk-food effect he had learned about in that Arizona lab also appeared to be occurring in fields and forests around the world. “Every leaf and every grass blade on earth makes more and more sugars as CO2 levels keep rising,” Loladze said. “We are witnessing the greatest injection of carbohydrates into the biosphere in human history―[an] injection that dilutes other nutrients in our food supply.”

“He published those findings just a few years ago, adding to the concerns of a small but increasingly worried group of researchers who are raising unsettling questions about the future of our food supply. Could carbon dioxide have an effect on human health we haven’t accounted for yet? The answer appears to be yes—and along the way, it has steered Loladze and other scientists, directly into some of the thorniest questions in their profession…”

Text: The Great Nutrient Collapse, Politico.

Pic: Soylent Green, 1973.